Algeria is a republic with relatively strong
presidential power. According to the constitution, the
country is a democracy with multi-party systems and with
Islam as a state religion. In fact, FLN, the party that
sprang from the liberation struggle against France a
little over half a century ago, has continued to
dominate even since the one-party state was abolished in
1989. The military is a strong force of power.
The Constitution stipulates that discrimination is
prohibited and that freedom of opinion, association and
opinion should prevail, but in reality authorities
persecute those who criticize the government and prevent
demonstrations and meetings. All elections are usually
surrounded by accusations of electoral fraud.
Total population and chart of Algeria for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The president, who is head of state and
commander-in-chief, is elected in general elections
every five years. Candidates must be approved by the
Constitutional Council, which has the
highest legal power to monitor, among other things,
electoral processes and referendums.
A restriction on two terms of office for the
presidential post was removed by a constitutional
amendment in 2008 which allowed Abdelaziz Bouteflika to
be re-elected both a third and a fourth time. A new
constitutional amendment that reintroduced the
restriction was adopted in 2016. During Bouteflika's
presidency, constitutional changes were also implemented
that strengthened the presidential power in relation to
the prime minister and the security service (see Current
The President appoints the Prime Minister and must,
since 2016, elect someone from the largest party in
Parliament has two chambers, both of which are
legislative. The lower house (National People's
Assembly) has 462 members since the elections
in 2012. The elections are proportional and are held
every five years. The Upper House (National
Council) has 144 members, of which one-third
are elected by the president and two-thirds are elected
by regional and municipal assemblies. The term of office
of the members of the upper house is six years. Half the
national council is replaced every three years. The
National Council must pass laws passed by the lower
house by a three-quarters majority.
According to a law from 2012, between 20 and 50
percent of the persons on the parties' electoral lists
must be women, depending on how many seats the electoral
district has. After the election that year, almost a
third of parliamentarians were women.
Citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote.
Algeria is divided into 48 provinces and 1,540
municipalities. Each province is headed by a governor
appointed by the president. The provincial assemblies
are elected for five years.
Following extensive protests in 2011, some reforms
were adopted which, among other things, made it easier
for political parties to be approved by the authorities.
As a result, 23 new parties were allowed to register for
the 2012 elections, and almost 30 parties entered
parliament. The popular wave of protests in 2019 has
prompted the regime to promise new constitutional
amendments, and a referendum will be held on the
The National Liberation Front (Front
de libération nationale, FLN) is the
heir to the liberation movement against the French
colonial empire that was formed by Algerians in exile in
1954. After waging guerrilla war against the French
army, FLN was converted into a state-bearing party in
1962 and became the only permissible party.
democratization in 1989. With the exception of the
1991/92 elections, the party played a completely
The Democratic National Assembly (Rassemblement
national démocratique, RND) is a sister
party to the FLN that has ties to the military
leadership and advocates more market-adapted economics.
RND has been the second largest party since 2002 and
collaborated with FLN in the so-called presidential
alliance. Its long-time party leader Ahmed Ouyahia, who
has been prime minister on several occasions, resigned
in 2019 after popular protests pushed President
Bouteflika away. Ouyahia was then also formally subject
to corruption suspicions.
When the one-party system was abolished, the
Islamic Rescue Front (Front islamique du salut,
FIS) was founded and quickly became the
most important opposition force. The party's goal was to
fight Western influence and parts of the party advocated
an Islamic state. When the FIS was about to win the
1991/92 parliamentary elections, the military
interrupted the electoral process, banned the party and
imprisoned thousands of members (see Modern History).
FIS is still prohibited.
No Islamist party has subsequently succeeded in
obtaining strong support. The largest is the moderate
Social Movement for Peace (Mouvement de
la societé pour la paix, MSP, or Hamas
with abbreviation in Arabic). MSP is the Algerian branch
of the Muslim Brotherhood. The party was previously part
of the presidential alliance with FLN and RND, but
withdrew ahead of the 2012 election and instead formed
the Green Algerian Alliance (Alliance
de l'Algérie verte, AAV) with two other
Islamist parties: Islah (or the
Movement de la Reforme Nationale, the Movement for
national reform) and Ennahda (al-Nahda
or Mouvement de la Renaissance Islamique, Islamic
Renaissance Movement). Ennahda, which also has roots in
the Muslim Brotherhood, has no ties to the party of the
same name in Tunisia. In the 2017 election, MSP instead
formed an alliance with a breakaway group, Front
for Change (Front du Change, FC),
while Ennahda merged with the Front for Justice
and Development (Front pour la justice et
développement, FJD) and the
National Construction Movement (al- Binaa or
Mouvement de construction national).
Many observers had expected good election results for
the Islamists in light of similar parties' success in
other countries. However, they had no major impact,
either in 2012 or in 2017.
The Socialist Front (Front des
forces socialistes (FFS)) and the
Cultural and Democratic Collection (Rassemblement
pour la culture et la democratie, RCD)
work for the Berber cultural and political rights. Both
parties are secular and RCD is strongly anti-Islamic.
Both have boycotted several choices.
Among other secular parties are the Trotskyist
Workers Party (Parti des travailleurs,
PT) whose party leader Louisa Hanoune
as the first Algerian woman took part in the 2004
Unlimited re-election for president
Approves a constitutional amendment that allows a
person to hold the office of office for an unlimited
number of terms;