According to the 1996 Constitution, Chad is a
republic with multi-party systems. The president is head
of state and commander-in-chief and has great powers. In
the spring of 2018, a series of constitutional
amendments were adopted that further strengthened the
presidential power. Since President Idriss Déby took
power in the early 1990s, his zagawa people group from
northeastern Chad has dominated the army leadership, the
government and the state administration. Déby's regime
has met armed resistance from a number of rebel groups.
Since the spring of 2018, the president is elected in
general elections for a six-year term and may be
re-elected at most once. Previously, the term of office
was five years and the president could be re-elected an
unlimited number of times.
Total population and chart of Chad for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The president appoints all ministers in the
government. In connection with the constitutional
amendments 2018, the Prime Minister's post and the Vice
President were abolished. The president also has
influence over the appointment of judges, generals and
senior executives within the state corporations.
The legislative power lies with Parliament, the
National Assembly, which has 188
members. According to the Constitution, general
elections to Parliament are to be held every four years,
but the last election was held in 2011. Thereafter, the
election date has been postponed several times,
including the reason that the country cannot afford to
Chad is a colonial creation, where the residents
feel more loyalty with their family and people than with
the nation. Since a long time, there are contradictions
between Muslim, Arab-linked, often nomadic groups in the
north and agricultural Bantu people, often Christians,
in the south.
Since President Idriss Déby took power in 1990, his
zagawa people group from northeastern Chad has dominated
both the army leadership as well as the government and
state administration. Alternatively, other people from
the north or Muslims are favored. The Christians in the
South and other non-Muslims are in principle excluded
from higher positions.
President Déby's party The Patriotic Rescue
Movement (Mouvement patriotique de salut,
MPS) is the country's dominant party
and the only one that has a national reach. MPS was
formed by Déby in 1990 when he overthrew the then
dictator Hissène Habré (see Modern History). The party
has the strongest support in eastern and northern Chad.
A membership in MPS opens the way to resources, jobs and
other government assignments.
The opposition, which has its base in the south, is
fragmented and weak. It lacks resources to seriously
challenge MPS. The few opposition politicians who dare
to fight the government are under threat. Major
opposition parties are the National Union for
Development and Renewal (Union National pour le
dévéloppement et le renouveau, UNDR)
and the Union for renewal and democracy
(Union pour le renouveau et democratie, URD).
The Action Front of the Republic
(Fédération action pour la republic, FAR)
wants increased autonomy in the south. The largest of
these parties is UNDR.
Prior to the 2016 presidential election, the
opposition agreed in an alliance called the New
Front for Change (Front de l'opposition
nouvelle pour l'alternance et le change, Fonac).
The alliance was formed as an attempt to prevent
President Déby from being re-elected to a fifth term in
office. One of the alliance's front figures was UNDR
leader Saleh Kebzabo, who stood in the election against
Déby but lost.