Despite a turbulent history with several
military coups, Ghana is now a relatively stable
democracy. Multiparty systems prevail, but the country's
electoral laws make two political parties dominate. The
left is the heir to the country father Kwame Nkrumah,
while the right has its origin in the opposition to him.
The 1992 Constitution states that Ghana is a republic
with multi-party systems. The executive power lies with
the president, who is head of state, government and
commander-in-chief. The President appoints a Vice
President and elects his own government, which must,
however, be approved by Parliament (see below).
Total population and chart of Ghana for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The president is elected for a term of four years in
direct, general elections. Re-election can be done once.
Victory in the first round requires at least half of the
votes, otherwise a second round is held between the two
candidates who received the most votes.
The Legislative Parliament consists of a House whose
275 members are elected in four years by a majority vote
in one-man constituencies. In addition, there
Government (Council of State), consisting of 25
members designated by the president or regional
governments (see below) and the National
Security (National Security Council) with 20
members. Both agencies are advisory to the president.
Administratively, Ghana is divided into ten regions
with each regional government. At the local level there
are 216 districts, governed by local parishes. In
addition, a large number of chieftains also have
political influence in the village communities.
The political parties must not be religious,
geographically or ethnically based. Two political camps
dominate: successors to socialist father Kwame Nkrumah
(see Modern history) and right-wing political parties
that had their base among the opposition to Nkrumah. The
system of majority voting contributes to Ghana having a
two-party system in practice. Small parties and
individual politicians sometimes change sides. The
parties that exist today arose in connection with the
reintroduction of democracy and civil rule in 1992.
The large party of the Nkrumah Falang is the
National Democratic Congress (NDC).
It is now known as Social Democratic and developed from
Jerry John Rawling's Socialist-inspired military regime
1982-1992. NDC and Rawlings won in the 1992 and 1996
elections, and Rawlings also later retained influence in
the party. The military regime's bad reputation and
allegations of corruption have sunk the image of the NDC.
The party mainly seeks its support in the Volta region
and the northern part of the country.
NDC candidate John Evans Atta Mills won the
presidential election in 2008. A few months before the
2012 presidential election, Mills quickly passed away
and was succeeded by Vice President John Dramani Mahama,
who then won the presidential election later that year.
On the opponent side, the right-wing, market-liberal
New Patriotic Party (NPP),
which ruled Ghana in 2000–2008, dominates with party
leader John Agyekum Kufuor as president. Previously, the
Right had only held power for a short period
(1969–1972). NPP's candidate in the 2012 presidential
election was Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, a former
foreign minister. The party is strongest in southern
Essentially sulky is also the People's
National Unity (People's National Convention,
PNC). A party that expects to Nkrumah
camp's Coalition People's Party
(Convention People's Party, CPP), which
still supported the NPP in the elections in 2000 and
2004. The CPP, which was Nkrumah's party in the 1960s,
"resurrected" by the merger of two parties in 1998. Now
CPP is led by Nkrumah's daughter Samia Yaba Nkrumah, who
is Ghana's first female party leader.
Oil exports are modest but growing
Revenues from oil exports amount to approximately two million dollars during
the period January – September. During the same period, Ghana's costs of
importing oil, oil products and natural gas are around $ 2.2 billion.
Oil production is increasing
Oil production at the Jubilee field off the coast of Ghana is now at 77,000
barrels a day. British company Tullow Oil invests around $ 4 billion in Ghana's
Investments in natural gas
Ghana borrows $ 3 billion from China's development bank to finance the
development of the natural gas industry.
Mills is elected NDC presidential candidate
At the ruling NDC Party Congress, challenger Nana Rawlings receives only a
few percent of delegates' votes in the election of presidential candidate, while
incumbent President Mills receives 97 percent of the vote.
Mills is being challenged ahead of the 2012 presidential election
Nana Konadu Rawlings, wife of President Jerry Rawlings, challenges Mills in
the ruling party NDC's election of candidate in the 2012 presidential election.