According to the constitution, Madagascar is
a parliamentary democracy with multi-party systems. The
political parties are rarely ideologically controlled,
but are built around their leaders. President Andry
Rajoelina is backed by a ten-party alliance named We All
with President Rajoelina.
The constitution was adopted in 1992, but after each
shift of power, the incumbent president has made changes
to the constitution to promote his own political goals -
and each time the power of the presidential office has
been strengthened. The latest version of the
Constitution is from 2010; then the lowest age for a
president was lowered from 40 to 35 years. Another
change was that a presidential candidate must have lived
in the country continuously for at least six months
before the election. Both changes were made to suit the
country's leading politician Andry Rajoelina (see Modern
Total population and chart of Madagascar for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
Madagascar is a republic, where the president is head
of state and commander-in-chief and appoints the prime
minister (head of government). On the latter's proposal,
the president also appoints other members of government.
The President has the right to dismiss the Prime
Minister. The president is elected every five years and
the president can sit for a maximum of two terms. If no
candidate receives at least 50 percent of the vote, a
second round of elections shall be held between the two
candidates who received the most votes.
Parliament has two chambers, the National
Assembly (the lower house) and the
Senate (the upper house). Both chambers have
varied in size over the years. Nowadays, the National
Assembly has 151 members, who are elected in general
elections for a five-year term. The Senate has 63
members: 42 are elected by electors (members of the
National Assembly and mayors and members of regional
assemblies) and 21 are elected by the president. The
term of office of the senators is five years.
Administratively, Madagascar has been divided into
six provinces and 22 regions (faritra) since
2010. According to the constitution, the provinces must
have "administrative and financial self-determination".
Madagascar politics is characterized by party
fragmentation, confrontation, ever-changing alliances
and strong personal contradictions. There are dozens of
registered political parties, although only about 10 of
them have managed to get into Parliament. The parties
are often anchored in a people group, a country party or
around a person. Ideologies rarely play a big role.
The last election to the National Assembly was held
in May 2019. At that time, seven parties got a seat in
the House. When the Senate elections were last held, in
December 2015, five parties entered the upper house. The
most important of the parties / alliances in both
chambers are described below.
In office we all sit with
President Rajoelina (Isika Rehetra Miaraka
amin'i Andry Rajoelina, IRD). It is an
alliance of ten parties that all support Rajoelina,
former coup maker (2009) and now president since 2018.
The IRD dominates the National Assembly greatly.
In the Senate are a couple of representatives of
another party alliance in support of Rajoelina, called
By President Andry Rajoelina (Miaraka
amin'i Prezida Andry Rajoelina, Mapar).
Mapar won in the 2013 parliamentary elections.
The opposition to Rajoelina has been conducted mainly
by three presidents: Marc Ravalomanana, Didier Ratsiraka
and Albert Zafy. The biggest opposition party is
Ravalomanana's I Love Madagascar (Tiako
in Madagasikara, TIM). TIM is the
second largest party / alliance in the National Assembly
and also has three members in the Senate. In the 2013
parliamentary elections, Ravalomanana's support party
called itself the Ravalomanana movement
(Mouvance Ravalomanana, MR) and even then became the
The Senate is largely dominated by New Powers
for Madagascar (Hery Vaovao ho an'i
Madagasikara, HVM), a support party to
Hery Rajaonarimampianina, who was president between 2014
and 2018, that is, even when the Senate elections were
Other parties in the National Assembly and Senate
have only one mandate each.
New unity government
A new unity government joins with the participation of Ravalomanana's and
More approve of democratic roadmap
Ravalomanana's and Zafy's political groups also approve the "roadmap" for
democracy, which will now pave the way for elections within a year.
New transitional government
Rajoelina forms a new transitional government with small parties. The parties
of the three presidents distance themselves from Rajoelina's "roadmap" for
Ravalomanana is refused a return trip
Ravalomanana tries to return to Madagascar from the national flight in South
Africa but is refused to board the plane to his home country. Behind the
decision lies the Rajoelina regime.