Mauritius is a republic and has a president
as head of state. The legislative power lies with
Parliament, while the Prime Minister and his government
have the executive power. Mauritius has a
well-functioning multi-party system. The political
parties rarely get their own majority, which is why the
government usually switches between different fragile
The President has mainly ceremonial duties and is
elected every five years by a simple majority of the
Parliament (National Assembly). The
President formally appoints the Prime Minister, who is
always the leader of the party or party alliance that
has control over the majority of seats in the National
Assembly. The other members of the government are also
formally appointed by the President, on the
recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Total population and chart of Mauritius for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The Prime Minister leads the government and is
responsible for the National Assembly. However, the
president has the right to form a new government with
members of the National Assembly if the incumbent
government falls into a vote of no confidence.
Laws are passed by the National Assembly, which has a
chamber of members appointed in general elections every
five years. The Chamber consists of the President, 62
elected members, the Chancellor of Justice and up to
eight additional members who are appointed to guarantee
all ethnic groups representation.
The island of Rodrigues has its own government and
its own regional parliament. Rodrigues also has two
representatives in the National Assembly.
A proposal for a new electoral reform was presented
in the fall of 2018, but the National Assembly has not
yet decided on it (see Calendar).
Local elections are held in municipalities and local
districts every five years.
Since political parties in Mauritius rarely get their
own majority in the National Assembly, the government
usually switches between different coalitions that are
often difficult to hold together due to personal
contradictions between leading politicians. Government
periods are therefore often relatively short.
Three parties dominate the policy: Mauritius
Labor Party (Mauritius Labor Party, MLP),
Militant Socialist Movement (Mouvement
Socialist militant, MSM) and
Mauritius Militant Movement (Mouvement Militant
Mauritius, MMM). Of
the eleven elections held since the year before
independence in 1968, MSM has won five, MLP four and MMM
two. However, several other parties have been part of
various government coalitions over the years. The
parties represent different groups of people rather than
ideologies. MLP has its support mainly among Hindus, MSM
among Hindus, Chinese and French Mauritians and MMM has
its voter base among Muslims.
MLP was formed in 1936 and is the oldest party in the
country. It has, alone or in a coalition government for
several periods since 1947. In the 2005 elections, got
the MLP in government with the support of several
smaller parties and after the 2010 election, the party
could rule on the Future of the Alliance
(Alliance de l'Avenir), where even the MSM and the
Mauritian Social Democratic party
(Party Mauricien Social-Democrat, PMSD)
was included. However, the MLP ended up in opposition
after the 2014 election, when the Folkalliance
(Alliance Lepep), between the MSM, PMSD and the
Liberation Movement (Muvman Liberater, ML,
which broke out of the MMM), won big.
The Socialist MMM was formed in 1969 and is strongly
associated with its founder and leader, Paul Bérenger,
who was prime minister in 2003-2005. MSM was founded in
1983 as a spin-off from MMM. It was long dominated by
Anerood Jugnauth, who was prime minister in 1982–1995
and 2000–2003, and 2014–2017. In 2003–2014, Jugnauth was
the country's president. MSM and MMM have often
collaborated, most recently in 2012–2014. In 2017, the
party leader post was taken over by Anerood Jugnauth's
son Pravind, who was also appointed new Prime Minister.
In the 2019 election, MSM won its own majority in
PMSD was founded in 1995 and was a strong political
force until 1982, when it began to lose in influence.
However, the party made strong progress in the 2014
Two other important parties are the National
Union (Union nationale, UN)
and the Socialist Democratic Movement
(Mouvement socialiste démocrate, MSD),
both of which are breakaway parties from the MSM.
The Rodrigues people (Organization du
Peuple Rodriguais, OPR) represents the
residents of the island of Rodrigues and has two seats
in the National Assembly.
Trade agreements are concluded
Mauritius and India enter into a bilateral trade agreement.
Economic reforms begin
The government is embarking on major economic reforms, including tax cuts and
privatizations, in an effort to lift the country's poor economy.
Moving people is doomed
The High Court in the United Kingdom (High Court) ruled that the British
government was wrong in not allowing 1,600 people who had moved from the Chagos
Islands to Mauritius in connection with the construction of a US military base
there to recover their former homes.
Former islanders return
About a hundred former residents of the Chagos Islands, claimed by Mauritius,
make a return visit to the islands from which they were moved by the British
nearly 40 years ago. They were forced to relocate to make way for a US military
base on the island of Diego Garcia. A legal dispute is ongoing about these
people's right to return to the Chagos Islands.
Collaboration ends - new party is formed
The co-operation between MMM and MSM ends. Defenders from MSM form the new
National Union (UN).