Monaco is a monarchy where the regent, the
prince, takes an active part in government work. The
prince appoints the government and shares the
legislative responsibility with the elected parliament.
The princely title is inherited in the Grimaldi family
A female succession was introduced in 2002, when the
then Crown Prince Albert was unmarried and legal heirs
to the throne were missing after him. The fundamental
change meant that his sisters were in turn following him
to inherit the throne.
Total population and chart of Monaco for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The Government Council (Conseil du
gouvernement) appointed by the prince consists of one
prime minister and five "heads of department"
responsible for each area. The prime minister is
appointed by the French government to propose three
people, Frenchmen or monegasks, and the prince elects
one of them.
The government is only responsible to the prince, not
to the national council.
The National Council (Conseil
national) is responsible for the legislation together
with the prince. Its 24 members are elected in elections
every five years. All constitutional amendments must be
approved by the National Council. The Prince can
dissolve the National Council at any time.
There are also three advisory bodies. The State
Council (Conseil d'état) has twelve members who give
advice on issues related to legislation. When it comes
to constitutional issues and agreements with other
states, the prince must consult with the Crown Council (Conseil
de la couronne). Its seven members appointed by the
prince must be Monegasque citizens. The members are
approved by the National Council. The Economic and
Social Council (Conseil economique et social) has 33
members representing, among other things, the social
Local issues are handled by the municipal council (Conseil
communal), which is led by a mayor. The council has 15
members who are elected in four years and chaired by a
All Monegas over the age of 18 have voting rights,
but not foreigners, regardless of how long they have
been living in Monaco.
Monaco lacks political parties in the usual sense,
but at each election different groupings form lists of
candidates. From 1963 and 40 years on, politics was
completely dominated by the National Democratic
Union (Union nationale et démocratique), which
took all the seats in the National Council except on two
occasions. UND represents Monaco's old ruling families.
In the 2003 elections, UND was challenged by a new
electoral list, an alliance of several groups that
called themselves the Union of Monaco (L'Union
pour Monaco, UPM), led by Stéphane Valeri, who was
previously on the UND list. UPM won big, and managed to
retain its dominant position in the 2008 elections.
After that, a split in UPM, and the governing majority
lost the elections in 2013. Then the new opposition
alliance Horizon Monaco (Horizon
Monaco, HM), and its leader Laurent Nouvion were elected
new President of the National Council. Second place came
the Monegasque Union (Monégasque Union,
UM). A new party, the Renaissance,
which consisted of employees of the principal employer
of the Principality of the Société des Bains de Mer,
also took a seat in the National Council. In the 2018
election, Stéphane Valeri returned at the head of a new
electoral list, Priority Monaco
(Priority Monaco, Primo), which captured all but three
The judiciary in Monaco is reminiscent of French. The
highest judicial body is the Tribunal Suprême, whose
seven members are nominated by the National Council but
formally appointed by the prince.