Mozambique's president has great powers, and
is both the head of state and government. The country
has a multi-party system, but the Frelimo government
party has ruled since the independence of the colonial
power Portugal in 1975. It has in effect led to the
power of a political elite within Frelimo. This has
caused resentment among Frelimo's opponents within the
largest opposition party, Renamo. Corruption is
widespread both within the justice system and society at
large, and the police are accused of using too much
force in arrests and arrests.
The 1990 Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique
prohibits the death penalty and guarantees citizens
basic human rights. The President and Parliament shall
be elected by direct universal suffrage. The president
is elected by the people for a term of five years and
may be re-elected. In addition to the head of state and
government, the president is also the country's
commander in chief.
Total population and chart of Mozambique for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The prime minister is not the head of government, but
has only one advisory position vis-à-vis the president.
The Prime Minister presents the Government's action
program and budget to Parliament.
The government, with 18 members,
gives advice to the president. It includes, among other
things, the Prime Minister, the President of Parliament
and the one who came second in the last presidential
election. Other members are appointed by the President
The Legislative Parliament has 250 members elected by
the people for a term of five years. The voting age is
Mozambique is divided into ten provinces plus the
capital Maputo, which is a separate administrative area.
Each province is governed by a governor appointed by the
president. In 2009, the first elections for new
provincial assemblies were held with 50 members each.
The members shall be advisory to the governors and
elected every five years. Municipal elections are also
held every five years.
Although Mozambique is a multi-party state, politics
is dominated by two parties: the ruling
Mozambique Liberation Front (Frente de
Libertação de Mozambique, Frelimo) and the former
guerrilla Mozambique's National Resistance
Movement (Resistência Nacional Mozambique,
Renamo, also known as MNR). The weapons were silenced in
the 1990s (see Modern History), but the relationship
between the old arch enemies is still charged. In the
early 2010s, tensions led to military confrontations,
but after a peace agreement was signed in 2014,
relations improved (see Current Policy).
While the socialist Frelimo has great support in the
southern parts of the country, most of Renamo's
supporters come from northern and central Mozambique.
Renamo, which is usually described as poorly organized,
refers to itself as center-right.
The Mozambique Democratic Movement (Movimento
Democrático de Mozambique, MDM) was formed in March 2009
and entered Parliament in the elections held in October
of that year. MDM was founded mainly by defectors from
Renamo. The party has become an increasingly powerful
political force and it doubled its mandate in parliament
in the 2014 elections.
There are also a number of smaller parties with
Frelimo has ruled the country ever since independence
from Portugal in 1975. The long hold of power has
strengthened the political elite's position, which has
promoted corruption, and caused resentment by the
political opposition. Corruption is not only a problem
among the country's politicians but also in society at
large, despite a new anti-corruption law from 2012.
Mozambique was ranked 119 out of 175 countries in the
organization Transparency International's 2014
measurement of corruption in the world.
The country's legal system is largely based on
colonial Portuguese legislation. Extensive work is
underway to reform the laws. In 2014, a new penalty was
The judiciary is subject to political pressure and
there is a shortage of educated lawyers while old legal
cases are accumulated on high. Organized crime has been
strengthened, especially in the Maputo area, where
police and politicians are accused of links to
criminals, while statistics show that the number of
crimes is increasing.
The Supreme Court is the last court and its president
is appointed by the president. Appellate courts exist in
all provinces, but several lack trained judges. Military
courts judge only military personnel. Special courts are
available for children under 16 years.
There are beatings and also fatalities in connection
with police interventions. Torture, arbitrary arrests
and executions without judicial review have been
documented. There are also reports that police and
government officials threatened and harassed members of
the opposition. The situation in prisons is difficult.
Frelimo's victory is considered to be due to cheating
In the parliamentary elections, which are held at the same time, the Frelimo
government party extends its majority to 191 of the 250 seats, but is again
accused of electoral fraud by Renamo, which loses almost half of its seats and
stays at 51. MDM enters Parliament with eight seats. MDM had then been prevented
by the country's electoral commission from appearing in 9 of the country's 13
constituencies, which attracted international criticism. Both MDM and Renamo
claim that Frelimo is guilty of electoral fraud. Election observers criticize
Frelimo for using the state's resources for his election campaign and accuse the
Election Commission of acting to Frelimo's advantage.
The president is elected for another term in office
President Armando Guebuza and the Frelimo government are re-elected. Guebuza
gets 75 percent of the vote in the presidential election, while Renamo leader
Afonso Dhlakama loses heavily in support since the last election to 16.4
percent. Beira's mayor Daviz Simango, who had formed the Mozambique Democratic
Movement (MDM) in March 2009, comes in third place in the presidential election
with 8.6 percent of the vote.
Thousands in need after drought
According to the UN, 350,000 people in Mozambique are in need of food aid due
to poor crops following drought.