Tanzania is a republic and a union between a
mainland part of Africa's east coast and the Zanzibar
archipelago, which has internal autonomy. The Dodoma
Union Parliament on the mainland enacts laws for the
entire Union and for the mainland. Since 1992, Tanzania
has multi-party systems, but the ruling Revolutionary
Party (CCM) largely dominates politics.
The legislative power is held by the European
Parliament (the National Assembly)
which has a chamber. In addition to enacting laws
specifically for the mainland, the National Assembly
also enacts laws on defense, foreign policy and foreign
trade for the entire Union. There are both directly
elected members and representatives appointed by the
Union Parliament, including the country's president or
Zanzibar's local parliament. The number of seats in the
Union Parliament may vary, but the elected members must
always constitute a majority. A certain proportion of
the mandate should be reserved for women.
Total population and chart of Tanzania for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
Elections to the National Assembly are held at the
same time as the presidential election (see below). The
term of office of the members is five years. Since the
2015 elections, the National Assembly has 366 members,
265 of whom are directly elected and others elected by,
for example, the President or Zanzibar's parliament, or
are seats reserved for women.
Zanzibar's internal autonomy is guaranteed by the
archipelago's own constitution from 1985. The
archipelago has its own government and parliament (the
House of Representatives) with the
right to decide on local issues. The House of
Representatives has 50 elected members and 26 members
nominated by, among others, women's organizations.
Elections to the House of Representatives are held every
five years, at the same time as the national
presidential and parliamentary elections. A
constitutional change from 2010 stipulates that power
should be shared between the two largest parties on the
islands (see below); they are to form coalition
governments with each vice president.
The executive power in the Union lies with the
president, who can hold office for a maximum of two
five-year terms. The president is head of state and
government as well as commander-in-chief and appoints
the national government among the members of the
national assembly. Any law passed by the National
Assembly must be approved by the President before it can
take effect. The president can stop a bill through veto
power, but Parliament can repeal the presidential vote
by a two-thirds majority. Parliament can also put the
president before the national court. The presidential
post usually alternates between a Christian and a Muslim
Tanzania was a one-party state for nearly three
decades until 1992 when multi-party systems were
introduced. As a result, younger and smaller parties
than today are having difficulty asserting themselves.
The Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha
Mapinduzi, CCM) was formed in 1977
through a merger between the mainland's only party, Tanu,
and the only party in Zanzibar, Afro-Shirazi. CCM was
for a long time the country's only allowed party and
controlled all political activity. It was initially a
socialist party but nowadays a market oriented policy.
Even after 1992, CCM has almost totally dominated
politics, including through an effective organization at
local and regional level. CCM has an authoritarian
character and can be described as a power apparatus
rather than a party. Several strong interest
organizations are affiliated with CCM, which also
dominates at workplaces as well as within the police
force and the armed forces. Many senior officers and
officials identify with CCM.
Within the CCM, many factional battles have been
fought, including between reformers and traditionalists.
CCM has been involved in a series of corruption
scandals, which contributed to increased support for the
opposition in the 2010s.
The trend towards greater political diversity has
been slow. The opposition is fragmented and weak. The
Conservative Party for Democracy and Progress
(Chama cha Democracia na Maendeleo, Chadema)
is the largest opposition party and has made the fight
against corruption a key issue. United Citizens'
Front (Chama Cha Wananchi, CCW, or Civic United Front,
CUF) was founded in 1992 in Zanzibar.
It may be partially described as liberal, but the image
of the CUF as a Muslim party from Zanzibar has limited
its success on the mainland.
Prior to the 2015 elections, Chadema, CUF and the
small parties National League for Democracy
(National League for Democracy, NLD)
and the National Convention for
Construction and Reform (Mageuzi, NCCR-Mageuzi)
managed to come together in an
electoral union, called the Alliance for the
Defense of the Constitution (Umoja wa katiba ya
wananchi, Ukawa). Ukawa was unable to
challenge CCM on government power but still had success
in the elections (see Current policy).
All political parties must have offices registered
both on Zanzibar and on the mainland. It has limited the
opposition's opportunities to grow strong. It is not
allowed to stand for election as an independent
Uamsho is an Islamist movement that
demands full independence for Zanzibar. Uamsho wants to
make Zanzibar an Islamic state where Muslim Sharia law
should apply. The movement has carried out a series of
demonstrations that degenerated in rattlesnakes in the
city of Zanzibar. Uamsho is suspected to be behind a
series of acid attacks, homicides, explosions and more.
Tanzania receives debt relief
The African Development Bank (ADB) writes off just over $ 640 million from
Tanzania's debt to the bank on the grounds that the country's economic
development is impressive and that government finances have improved.
China is exchanging energy for aid
China's Prime Minister Wen Jiabao visits Tanzania among several other African
countries. The purpose is to secure energy requirements in the home country
through agreements. In exchange for this, China promises assistance to Tanzania
in healthcare and communications.
Kikwete becomes CCM chairman
President Kikwete takes over as chairman of the CCM government party.