In the Republic of Zambia, the president has
great powers of power. The Social Democratic Movement
for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) was the country's largest
political party for 20 years until the fall of 2011,
when the opposition Patriotic Front (PF) received the
most votes and could form government. The political
system has several democratic deficiencies, including
After 18 years as a one-party state, Zambia gained a
new democratic constitution in 1991. It has been revised
several times since then, most recently in 2016.
Total population and chart of Zambia for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The executive power is held by a president with
extensive powers. The president is head of state and
government as well as commander-in-chief. The President
appoints a Vice President and a government, whose
members must be members of Parliament. Presidential
elections are held every five years and the president
may be re-elected once. As of 2016, a presidential
candidate must get more than 50 percent of the vote in
order to be elected. Thus, there may be a second round
of elections between the two main candidates from the
The Legislative Parliament, the National
Assembly, has a chamber of 156 elected members.
In addition, eight members are appointed by the
president. Parliament also includes the Vice President,
the President and the First and Second Deputy Speaker.
Elections to the National Assembly are held at the same
time as the presidential elections every five years. The
voting age is 18 years.
In addition to the National Assembly, there is an
Advisory Assembly (House of Chiefs),
consisting of 27 traditional leaders from the country's
ten provinces: Central,
Northern, Southern and
The provinces, which are divided into 103 districts,
are governed by each governor appointed by the
The judicial system is made up of British designs
with local courts and a supreme court of about 30
judges. All criminal cases in the lowest instance can be
changed by the High Court, whose decision can in turn be
appealed to the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court.
Movement for Multi-Party Democracy
(Movement for Multi-Party Democracy, MMD)
was the first party that was formed when the one-party
state came to an end in 1990. The founders wanted to get
rid of the then President Kenneth Kaunda's party, the
socialist United National Independence Party
(United National Independence Party, UNIP).
The MMD, which is usually referred to as Social
Democratic, won the first democratic elections held in
1991. Many members then resigned and formed new parties.
Despite all the fragmentation, the MMD remained the
country's largest party until the parliamentary and
presidential elections in September 2011, which was won
by the largest opposition party Patriotic Front
(Patriotic Front, PF). PF received a
few more seats than MMD, which came second. PF had
focused on criticizing the incumbent government for the
high food and fuel prices as well as the growing Chinese
influence in Zambia. The party won support from the
large group of first-time voters. In the 2016 election,
MMD lost almost all support, while PF remained the
The second largest party in the National Assembly has
been the Liberal United Party for National
Development ( UPND)
since 2016. It was formed in 1998 by company
manager Anderson Mazoka along with defunct MMD
Among the small parties are the Forum for
Democracy and Development ( FDD),
which was formed before the 2001 elections, including
that of former MMD members. The party has since seen its
voter support decrease and has only been given a mandate
in the last elections.
Kaunda's old party Unip has in recent years led a
thinning life under the leadership of Kaunda's son
Tilyendi Kaunda. The party no longer has any
representation in Parliament.
The Daily Nation is prosecuted following an article about Sata
The Daily Nation magazine publishes an article in which President Sata is
accused of corruption. According to the article, Sata should have helped friends
avoid having to pay a large debt to a state bank. The newspaper is later charged
Authorities reject Barotseland's declaration of independence
The separatist movement Barotseland's National Council issues a declaration
demanding independence for Barotseland. The declaration is condemned by the
national authorities and the Council leader goes underground.